Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Pine Pollen Powder: A Superfood with Time-honored History



Pine Pollen Powder Background
As a nutritive adaptogenic tonic, pine pollen powder is well known as a natural source "superfood" harvested from pine trees. Pine pollen powder is rich in testosterone, DHEA, antioxidants glutathione and superoxide dismutase which endows the pine pollen powder with great effects in both endocrine and immune system. There are a lot of different species of pine trees in the world that can release the pollen from their male catkins in spring time each year.

Pine pollen powder can be collected from Pinus sylvestris, pinus densiflora, pinus massoniana, pinus yunnanensis, pinus tabulaeformis and a lot of other different genus pinus which depend on which districts that locate. For example, Pinus sylvestris mainly is distributed in Western Europe and North American countries, pinus massoniana and pinus yunnanensis are main species pine trees in Asian countries. There are close to 175 species in the genus Pinus and in the family Pinaceae, all of which could produce pollen. Most commercial pine pollens are from the Pinus massoniana or Pinus sylvestris species. 

Our Pine Pollen is gathered in the Yunnan Province in Southwestern China--an area roughly 152,000 sq miles, with the northwestern region displaying impressive mountain ranges and river valleys--including the vast pine forests. This part of Yunnan is the Tibet Autonomous Zone and is the foot of the eastern most edge of the Himalayan Mountains. This is where our pine pollen is gathered once a year. The Yunnan Province is home to the richest plant life of all of China and has been a top destination for many naturalists from the US and Europe because of its natural beauty and diverse plant and animal life. Because of the geographic isolation and because of the geographic nature of the northwestern area of Yunnan, the forest where our pine pollen is harvested from is far from industry.

Pine Pollen History
Due to the nutritional value and its longevity tonic benefits for boosting energy and immunity, the pine pollen powder was widely used with a long history throughout Asia especially in China and Korea. Pine pollen powder is firstly recorded in the Chinese classic piecework Shennong's Herbal Classic in Han dynasty over 2,000 years ago. Nowadays it is still used in a lot of food products like as a kitchen baking ingredient to be added in flour in cakes in China andKorea. Also because of the long application history, most of wild pine pollen products are from Asian countries. 

Realization of pine pollen powder benefits in the Western countries is from recent years, most people know this miracle herb from the book of Stephen Harrod Buhner. In his book "The Natural Testosterone Plan" and "Pine Pollen: Ancient Medicine for a New Millennium.", Stephen argue that pine pollen given its potency, its similarity to ginseng in some of its actions, and its status as, perhaps, the premier phytoantrogen on the planet, should have been recognized long before now as the powerful medicinal that it is."

Pine pollen has been officially recorded from the earliest Tang materia medica/ Xin Xiu Ben Cao (A.D. 657-659) in Tang dynasty to modern China Pharmacopeia with a history of more than 1500 years in China. And Traditional Chinese Medicine and traditional health preservation study share the same theory and both believe “All the herbs could be medicines” and “Medicine and food shares homological origin”; therefore the application of pine pollen always accompany with the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Modern studies and researches on pine pollen not only further prove the conclusion of Traditional Chinese Medicine on pine pollen but also add something new.

Applications in Traditional Chinese Medicine

The first pharmacological work is Shen Nong's Herbal Classic/ Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing completed during Qin and Han dynasty(about A.D. 200). The book are composed by 3 sections and recorded 365 kinds medicines including 252 kinds herbal medicines, 67 kinds animal medicines and 46 kinds mineral medicines. And Shen Nong's Herbal Classic is the first pharmacological work that recorded pine pollen; and its concise expressions make it the essence of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

And medical experts in the following dynasties added some new information on basis of the original version, and there are more than 30 versions developed afterthat. The enlarged edition in Tang Dynasty named Tang materia medica(A.D. 657-659) has been the first national pharmacopeia in the world which is 883 years earlier than first European Nuremberg Pharmacopoeia published in 1542 by government. Although there are other pharmacological works earlier than Tang materia medica(A.D. 657-659) has proven that pine pollen being used before Tang Dynasty, while Tang materia medica(A.D. 657-659) was the first official pharmacological work to record the applications of pine pollen in China.

Records In Pharmacological Works/Pharmacopoeia In Different Periods In China
Shen Nong's Herbal Classic in Han Dynasty (about A.D. 200)
“Pine pollen tastes sweet and mild with no toxicity, mainly helping with vicious Qi from cold and fever in heart and abdomen, inducing urination, eliminating extravasated blood, nourishing Qi, strenghting energy, extending lifespan for long-term consumption.”
Tang materia medica in Tang Dynasty (A.D. 657-659)
“Pine pollen also names pine yellow because it looks like cattail pollen, long-term intaking can lighten the weight and its treatment effect is even better than pine bark, leaf and resin”.
Expanded Herbal Foundation/Ben Cao Yan Yi in Song Dynasty(A.D 1116)
“The yellow powder of the pine flower was named as pine yellow, people in mountain area collect in time and make it as a delicious pastry. However it can’t be preserved for a long time, it was seldom transported to a far-away place. Pine yellow looks like cattail pollen but with a lighter taste, it can treat postnatal high fever, headache, dry mouth&lips, agitation, thirst, muddle&unpleasant mood as well.”
Compendium of Materia Medica /Ben Cao Gang Mu in Ming Dynasty(A.D 1590)
“Pine pollen tasting sweet, mild, with no toxicity, running cardiopulmonary, nourishing Qi, expelling wind, stopping bleeding and brewing wine as well.”
New Compilation Of Materia Medica/Ben Cao Cong Xin in Qing Dynasty(A.D 1757)
“Pine pollen is effective to cure various of variola, sores, hurts as well as rotten wound which can’t scab by itself.”
Concise Compendium Of Materia Medica/Jing Bian Ben Cao Gang Mu (2010)
Shizhen Li(writer of Compendium Of Materia Medica) described that pine tree is tall and straight, with rough and thick bark like fish scale, blooming during February and March with 4 to 5 inches length flower, flower naming pine yellow, the fruit being in pig’ heart shape and naming pinecone. Pine yellow or pine pollen tastes sweet with a mild feature and no toxicity. It can nourish heart and lung, tonify qi, expelling wind and stopping bleeding.
Chinese Pharmacopoeia(Edition 1985)
Pine pollen is dried pollen collected from fringes of Pinus Massoniana Lamb., Pinus Tabulaeformis Carr., and Pinus Yunnanensis Franch when pine trees bloom at the beginning of spring.
Feature: light yellow fine powder, light weight, smell and taste, with smooth feeling when entwisted by fingers,.
Identification: Under microscope, raw pine pollen is with elliptic cell with 45-55 micrometer length, 29-40 micrometer diameter, smooth surface and inflated gasbags at both sides which shows obvious reticular texture and polygonal mesh shape.
Property: Sweet, mild, medicine for liver and spleen
Main functions: Eliminating dampness, with function of astringency and hemostasis, treatment of eczema, impetigo, skin erosion,dripping ichor, traumatic bleeding, diaper-induced dermatitis.
Usage and Dosage: External use
Shelf: Store in dry place and keep away from moisture
Detailed Explanation of 800 Kinds Chinese Medicine(2009)
Name: Pine pollen, pine pollen flower,pine yellow
Source: Pinus Massoniana Lamb., Pinus Tabulaeformis Carr., and Pinus Yunnanensis Franch mainly in Zhejiang,Jiansu, Lia ning, Jilin, Hubei, Yunnan Provinces.
Collection and procession: Collect the pine Catkins when pine trees bloom during April and May and then naturally dry the pine pollen catkins to eliminate the impurities.
Specification and character: Pine pollen is light yellow fine powder and shown as tiny round cells under microscope. It is with light weight and easily to lifted in the air, with sense of smooth, mostly floating in the water, lighter smell and taste. The high quality pine pollen is those yellow, fine and smooth pollen with not impurities and great fluidity.
Identification: Under microscope, raw pine pollen is with elliptic cell with 45-55 micrometer length, 29-40 micrometer diameter, smooth surface and inflated gasbags at both sides which shows obvious reticular texture and polygonal mesh shape.
Property: Sweet and mild in property; medicine for liver and spleen. Tonify spleen&liver yang which could nourish liver and eliminate the wind, also with function of astringency and hemostasis.
Ancient and modern applications:
1.Tonifying spleen and qi, having great effect on gastropathy, duodenal ulcer as well as chronic constipation. The general dosage is 3 grams mixed with hot water. It also the function of anti-aging and senile diseases prevention such as prostatitis, prostatic hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction, climacteric syndrome, constipation, liver cirrhosis and fatty liver.
2. Eliminate inner wind. It can help wind dizziness, headspin, swelling, numbness and skin diseases. The method of application suggested is to dissove the pine pollen with certain concentration ethanol(liqueur).
3. Used for alcoholism, headache, dizziness, obstructed throat, diarrhea with clear intestinal juice and withering mental condition. The typical TCM formula contains pine pollen(30g), dried tangerine peel(15g), coptis chinensis root(15g), liquorice root(6g) and stir frying these ingredients and mill to powder, 6g a time twice a day(morning and evening).
4. Used for lingering dysentery with the dosage of 10g pine pollen taken by water in which rice has been cooked.
5. Used for infant eczema. External use the mixture of pine pollen, calamine and egg oil on infected part, 3 times a day.
6. Used to treat diaper dermatitis because its hygroscopic effect. Smear the pine pollen on infected skin.
7. Used to prevent traumatic bleeding because its stypticity function. External smear the pine pollen on the trauma or wound.
8. Facial beauty function mixed with poria cocos and whitish honey.
Usage and dosage:
Internal use: Decocted with water or soaked in liqueur with 3 to 6 grams pine pollen
External use: Smear on the affected part after mixing with liquid
Modern researches:
Compositions of pine pollen include grease, pigment, protein, more than 20 kinds amino acid  like methionine, lysine, valine, threonine, leucine and so on, 14 kinds vitamins, 24 kinds mineral element like iron, phosphorus, sulphur, selenium, potassium, calcium,zinc, manganese, copper and so on, 18 kinds natural active enzymes, plant hormone, aromatic compound and so on.
Pharmacologic actions include immunity enhancement, anti-aging function, lowering blood fat, digestive function improvement, inhibit of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, exciting hematopoietic function, promoting&strengthening the growth, expansion of coronary artery, increasing vascular toughness and protecting function on experimental hepatic injury.

Records Of Pine Pollen in Health Preservation and Dietary Therapy Applications in Different Periods in China
As one of the most important contents and methods of China’ traditional health preservation study, dietary therapy science has a long history. Purpose of dietary therapy is very clear to prevent the diseases before it occurs. Huangdi Neijing(during the Warring States period, 770-221 B.C) as one of the existed TCM theory books has discussed the principle of dietary therapy. Also in the Pre-Qin Period (Before 221 B.C.) “Dietary Therapy Science” had been recorded in book Zhou Li/ Rites of Zhou in which there were lots of philosophical comments on the relationship between drinks&food and diseases, which became part of foundation of Chinese medicine theory of prevention the disease before it occurs. From Tang Dynasty(618-907 A.D.), there are many kinds of editions of Shi Liao Ben Cao/ Dietetic Materia Medica which recorded different kind of food-medicines, in which there were a lot of records of pine pollen being used in soup, cakes, and brewing wine as a significant food-medicine.
Shi Liao Ben Cao/ Dietetic Materia Medica in Tang Dynasty
Pine Pollen Honey Juice that recorded in this book describing the production process as mixing 5 kilograms honey with 0.5 kilogram pine pollen which could promote the facial looks after a long-term intaking.
Pine Pollen Eulogia by Sushi in Song Dynasty
Internal use or external use of mixture of 0.5 kilogram pine pollen, 400 grams cattail pollen, 50 grams sophora flower, 50 grams apricot blossom and 1 kilograms honey could keep a red and white face(description of a pleasant appearance condition in China) to the old.
Shan Jia Qing Gong in Song Dynasty.
The production process of pine pollen cakes was mentioned in this book: People collect pine flower powder when pine tree blooming in spring and add it with water and rice flour, seal the mixture up for several days then model it according to the shape of ancient dragon cakes. This cake not only smells sweet and tastes pleasant but also it can make appearance more beautiful and can help people’s will.
Qun Fang Pu in Ming Dynasty
“When the pine caktins blooms during February or March, flower length arrives at three or four Chinese inch. And people spread out the ground with a cloth when the pine pollen is ripe, strike and collect its stamen named pine yellow. It can expel wind, stop bleeding and cure dysentery. Added with brown sugar it can make cakes full of nice smell, and the cakes are suggested to be taken soon because the shelf life is short.
Sui yi Ju Ying Shi Pu in Qing Dynasty
“Collect the yellow powder on pine pollen timely and mix with white granulated sugar as the cake stuffing, the cakes taste nice and have the function of keeping warm; or the powder could be take alone with hot water which could treat the dysentery.”
TCM Dietotherapy Collection/Zhong yi Shi Liao Fang Quan Lu(2000)
Pine yellow cake
Ingredients: 6g pine pollen powder, 100g flour, q.s. wheat flour
Production process: Collect the pine catkins in Spring, eliminate the impurities and then mix with honey as the cake stuffing; mix wheat flour with water as the cake skin, stuff the pine pollen stuffing inside and then steam the cakes.
Usage: Taken in the morning and evening
Benefits: Heath-care and prolong life
Function: Help all kinds of aging conditions.

Pine pollen application history in Japan, South Korea and North Korea
In ancient times, Japan, Sourth Korea and North Korea were greatly influenced by traditional Chinese culture. Many famous medical works like Tang materia medica/ Xin Xiu Ben Cao and Compendium of Materia Medica have been first introduced to Japan, South Korea and North Korea in a few years after they completed, and these great medical works not only enriched the medical theories but also made great contributions to the people’ health of above 3 countries. In the history of above 3 countries, the development of medical science and health preservation was always affected by theories of TCM and Health Preservation; even today this influence still plays an important role.

There is an old saying in Japan “
イナバの白兎がガマの稲綿にくるまった” which means the softness of pollen is even superior to rice, cotton and fur of rabbit. In ancient Japan, pine pollen was first used as a cure to many diseases in Japanese palace and among the common people. And from the treating records available at present, we can found the prescriptions are from ancient Chinese medical works. There are also records that ancient Japanese people consume pine pollen, especially the residences in Ibaraki Prefecture Japan with a long history of intaking pine pollen.

The application of pine pollen in Modern Japan is much more popular. The Japanese food is famous for its strictness of selecting raw materials and delicate making process. And the Pine Pollen Powder Cold Noodles has been a featured food for many Japanese restaurants at present which can show the importance of pine pollen application in Japan.

In the field of medicine, the healing effect that pine pollen on Prostate Disease has been discussed and researched the most such as Doctor Saito in Urology Department Nagasaki University Japan who has done a lot of researches and experiments and promoted the application of pine pollen in clinical medicine.

Japanese medical studies believe pine pollen has the function of anti-aging, blackening the beard and hair, elimilating the freckles and skin scars as the “Source of Beauty”. Especially they believe pollen has special function to blacken the gray hair, long-term consumption of pollen to promote the hair growth and turn the gray hair to black as an ideal hair-beauty agent. Practice has proven that an obvious effect can be seen for hair beauty after intaking pine pollen around half a year.

Both South Korea and North Korea belonged to old Joseon Dynasty and the family name of Chosun Dynasty governor is “Li” therefore it also named as “Li Dynasty” which has ruled Korean peninsula for 519 years from 1392 to1910. And during this period the famous medical work as Dongui Bogam (
동의보감) is a Korean book compiled by the royal physician, Heo Jun (1539 – 1615) and was first published in 1613 during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. The title literally means “Mirror of Eastern Medicine”. The book is regarded important in traditional Korean medicine and one of the classics of Oriental medicine today. As of July 2009, it is on UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme. It is expected to be translated in English by 2013. The original was written in Chinese alphabet and only part of it was transcribed in Korean for wide nursery use, as only officials understood old Chinese. The value of this book to Korea medical development is what Compendium of Materia Medica to Chinese. In this book, pine pollen is also recoded and described as” pine pollen is sweet, mild, heart and lung nourishment, qi tonifying medicine and with function to stop bleeding.

In another works named Annal of Joseon Dynasty(The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, also known as The True Record of the Joseon Dynasty, are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, which were kept from 1413 to 1865 and recorded the information concerning political, military, diplomacy, law, medical treatment, food, religion and other aspects.), there are a lot of records of pine pollen as a necessary daily aulic food ingredient which is applied to cakes, tea foods and brewing the wine. Till now, such pine pollen tea food that originated from royal palace is still a well-known food in South Korea.

Another paragraph in this book records that pine pollen collection has been an imposed work for all the national people which invested a lot of labor force each year as a result the monks had to be forced to collect the pine pollen in the mountains when the labor force was not enough. And pine pollen has been a tribute to royal palace with a large demand at that time.

As an addition, the pine pollen that Japan, South Korea and North Korea adopted in ancient time is from Pinus Densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini after many researches were conducted. Pinus densiflora, or Japanese red pine, has a wide distribution in korean peninsula that includes Japan, Korea, northeastern China(Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong) and the extreme southeast of Russia (southern Primorsky Krai). In modern times, besides applied in medical products and upscale tea food, pine pollen has been widely used in cosmetic industries in South Korea, there being a lot of brands launched a series of pine pollen theme cosmetic products in recent years.

Pine Pollen Nutrition
When comes to the utilization of pine pollen, priority issue is its safety to most people. More than 1500 years’ application history and a series of modern experiments including acute toxicity test, short-term toxicity test, mutagenesis test, teratogenesis test and carcinogenic test in China all showed that pine pollen is safe for human consumption.

Pine pollen contains all the nutrition and active substances needed to breed a new life entity of pine tree. So far, substances identified from pine pollen are more than 200 kinds including a variety of proteins, more than 20 kinds of amino acids(8 of them are essential to human), 15 kinds of vitamins, more than 30 kinds of mineral elements, nearly a hundred kinds of enzymes and coenzymes as well as other nucleic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids and saccharides. All these ingredients are not only complete in variety but also with a rich and balanced proportion. Content of some ingredients are significantly higher than content in food human daily intake; protein in same quantity pine pollen is 7-10 times higher than in same quantity beef and egg, crude fatty acids content is 3 times higher than bee source flower pollen at average, beta carotene content is 20-30 times higher than in carrots, iron content is 20 times higher than in spinach. And the researches also pointed out nutrition and bioactivity of pine pollen is significantly superior to all the rest edible plant pollen.

Protein and Amino Acids
Protein is material base of life which has a close relationship with formation, existing and extinction of life. Deficiency of protein, human will suffer from a poor health, weaken immunity, delayed growth, anemia; in some serious cases, it will cause edematization even threat to life. Protein accounts for 16.3% of human weight, that is to say there is around 9 kg protein for a 55kg adult. Proteins in human are a variety of types with different properties and functions which undergoes continuous metabolism and updates in the body.

Protein is composed by polypeptide while basic unit of polypeptide is amino acid; therefore protein is a kind of organic compound consists of different amino acids. The marshalling sequence difference of amino acid result in variety of protein types and different protein has different physiological functions which involve in the metabolism of life. Lack any of essential amino-acid will lead to abnormity in physiological function thus affect the normal operation of antibody metabolism and result in different diseases. Lacking of some non-essential amino acida may also cause disorders of antibody metabolism.

Proteins in food that human intake are disintegrated to amino acids under the action of digestive enzymes, and these amino acids will reorder in a certain sequence to combine to new proteins after absorbed by human body; meanwhile, old proteins undergo continuous metabolism and decomposition which makes them balanced in the body. Therefore quality & quantity of protein and ratio of different amino acids in human body concerns quality of protein synthesis; and whether people could enjoy a longer life has a close relationship with quality and quantity of protein in daily food. Besides synthesizing to new protein, amino acids also play a very important role in some physiological function independently.

There are more than 20 kinds of amino acids that can be tested in pine pollen, including 8 essential amino acids which body can’t synthesize on their own and the ratio is very close to criterion that made by WHO(World Health Organization) and FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization). Compared with other bee source pollens, amino acids contents in pine pollen are distinctly higher.
Content of major amino acids in pine pollen
Types of Amino acids
Content(mg/100g)
Types of Amino acids
Content(mg/100g)
glutamic acid
1579
serine
522
alanine
564
methionine
168
lysine
802
proline
880
glycine
698
arginine
998
aspartic acid
1098
cystine
112
leucine
846
valine
646
isoleucine
539
tryptophan
149
threonine
492
tyrosine
365
histidine
189
phenylalanine
572

Contrast of content of 8 human body essential amino acids in pine pollen and FAO standard(% of the total)
Name
Content(mg/100g)
Percentage
FAO standard percentage
phenylalanine
572
5.1
6.0
isoleucine
539
4.8
4.0
lysine
802
7.1
5.5
tryptophan
149
1.3
1.0
leucine
846
7.6
7.0
threonine
492
4.4
4.0
methionine
166
1.5
3.5
valine
646
5.8
5.0

Contrast of major amino acids content in pine pollen and in several other bee source pollen(mg/100g)
Pollen types
Amino acids
Pine pollen
Brassica flower pollen
Corn flower pollen
Buckwheat flower pollen
aspartic acid
1098
11.0
20.2
0
threonine
492
17.6
0
17.3
serine
522
40.9
80.4
17.3
glutamic acid
1579
14.2
10.1
62.8
glycine
698
14.7
3.1
8.0
alanine
564
68.8
25.1
39.6
valine
646
27.9
10.7
21.6
methionine
166
4.9
1.6
29.4
isoleucine
539
19.5
14.8
40.3
leucine
846
19.9
11.0
32.4
tyrosine
365
34.9
98.7
0
phenylalanine
572
10.7
0
12.7
lysine
802
26.1
21.6
20.8
histidine
189
15.5
20.4
4.7
arginine
998
36.0
68.0
7.4
proline
880
799
525
37

Direct physiological actions of 8 human body essential amino acids in pine pollen
Name of amino acid
Physiological actions
phenylalanine
Participate in and eliminate the damage/wastage of kidney and bladder function
isoleucine
Participate in adjustment and metabolism of thymus gland, spleen and pituitary gland, pituitary gland acts as the chief commander to work on thyroid gland and sexual gland.
lysine
As a component of liver and gallbladder; promote brain development and fat metabolism; adjust function of pineal gland, mammary gland, corpus luteum and ovary; prevent degeneration of cells.
tryptophan
Promote production of gastric juice and pancreatic juice.
leucine
Work to balance isoleucine.
threonine
Transfer some certain kinds amino acids for a balance in human body.
methionine
Formed part of hemoglobin and serum; promote spleen, pancreas and lymph.
valine
Act on corpus luteum, mammary gland and ovary.
Vitamins
Vitamins are a type of essential organic compounds to maintain human life activities as well as important active substances to preserve human health. Vitamins are neither the components of body tissues and cells nor can they produce any energy to support body; but its vital function is to participate in body metabolic regulation. Human body is like an intricate chemical workshop, within which different biochemical reactions are happening constantly and all these reactions cannot complete without catalysis of enzymes; while activity of enzymes requires participation of coenzymes and many known vitamins are important component of coenzymes. Vitamins account for a very small amount in human body and daily required amount is extremely small too, generally they are counted by milligram or microgramme. However vitamins play a very important role in process of growth, metabolism and development in human body; lack of which will cause corresponding vitamin deficiency disease and damage human health.

Most of vitamins can’t be synthesized or synthesis is not enough in the body, which can’t meet with body demand and often need to be obtained from daily food. Lack of vitamins in food will result in metabolic disorders; for example, vitamin A deficiency will cause nyctalopia, xerophthalmus or dry skin, vitamin D deficiency will cause rickets, vitamin B1 deficiency will cause dermatophytosis, vitamin B2 deficiency will cause cheilitis, angular cheilitis, glossitis or scrotitis, vitaimin B12 deficiency will cause pernicious anemia, vitamin C deficiency will cause scurvy.

Present known vitamins have dozens of types, and could be divided into two major categories as liposoluble and water soluble vitamins. Chemical composition of liposoluble vitamins only contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and those vitamins co-exist with lipid in the food which could dissolve in liposoluble solvent rather than water. Liposolube vitamins together with fat could be absorbed by lymphatic system in intestinal tract and discharged with a small amount from bile, most of them are stored in fat tissue after taken in. Liposoluble vitamins deficiency symptom won’t show up in a short time and can’t evaluated by urine examination. Water soluble vitamins are not only composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but also other elements like sulfur, nitrogen and cobalt, and they can dissolve in water rather than other liposoluble solvent or fat and spare part could be discharged with urine after meeting with body requirement. Most water soluble vitamins participate in different enzymes system and metabolic activity in form of co-enzymes. Water soluble vitamins deficiency symptom will shows up in a short period and can be evaluated by urine examination.

Vitamins that tested in pine pollen are more than 10 kinds, below are the content of different kinds of vitamins in pine pollen and benefits brief of each vitamin:
Names
Content(ug/100g)
physiological action
Vitamin B1
6070
Regulate nervous system, prevent and cure dermatophytosis,constipation and pachulosis.
Vitamin B2
486
Promote growth, activate cell, beautify eye skin, cure irregular menstruation, may cause angular cheilitis and spots on hand or feet.
Vitamin B5
14230
Help skin, digestive organs, nerve, muscle diseases, synthesize sex hormones.
Vitamin B6
1300
Promote growth, resist anemia, detoxification, treat early pregnancy reaction; may cause pachulosis, nervous insomnia, anemia, measles and skin infection.
Folic acid
934
Act as a co-enzyme in process of nucleic acid synthesis, resist anemia, protect mucosa, resist cancer, promote normal development of fetus neuraltube.
Vitamin C
56200
Effective on scurvy, gingivitis, dental bleeding and other symptoms, improve skin microcirculation, scavenge free radical and resist cancer.
Vitamin E
3240
Promote body hair growth, go against the infertility, treat neural and muscular diseases, scavenge free radical.
Vitamin A
43.2
Maintain eyesight reaction, normal form and function of epithelial tissue, promote bone development, prevent nyctalopia and wrinkles.
Vitamin D3
22.8
Prevent and cure rickets, osteomalacia, tetany of infant.
Beta Carotene
26
Help eye health, growth&development, acnes, wrinkles, prostate&uterine health; inhibit cancer to grow.

Content of Vitamin C in several common pollens(mg/100g)
Name
Pine pollen
Brassica flower pollen
Camellia flower pollen
Content
56.2
41.0
67.5
Saccharides
Saccharides are a type of widely distributed important organic compounds in nature, generally divided into monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide. Saccharides also are named as carbohydrate because its molecule structure is composed by one atomic oxygen and two atomic hydrogens which are similar to composition of hydrone. Saccharides could release plenty of energy via oxidation action to meet with vital movement of living body as their direct energy source, 1 gram sugar could decompose and release 4 kilocalorie calories after total oxidation. Human physiological activity including organs like brain, heart and muscle tissues can’t function without saccharides. Metabolism of saccharides in human body are regulated by insulin, and they will be directly stored in liver or in subcutaneous tissue after transferred to fat in form of hepatic glycogen if the saccharides are excessive in blood.

Saccharides in pine pollen are mainly polysaccharide including starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and coarse fiber; among which cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and coarse fiber are main components of pine pollen cell wall and they are also the major dietary fiber substances. Dietary fiber neither can be digested or absorbed nor can provide any nutrition and calories to human body but they have close relationship to human health. Dietary fiber plays a vital role to preserve the health of digestive system, its direct function is to promote intestines peristalsis and effectively prevent constipation from happening. It can clear the digestive wall, enhance digestive function, dilute and accelerate the elimination of cancerogenic substances in food, and prevent colorectal cancer. Meanwhile, it can rapidly discharge cholesterol to make the blood sugar and cholesterol at a balanced level for prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other related diseases. That’s why dietary fiber are praised as “the seventh nutrient of the world”.
Starch and cellulose contents in pine pollen
Item
Content(%)
starch
7.0
cellulose
9.9
hemicellulose
1.5
lignin
25.9
coarse fiber
27.3
Minerals and microelements
Minerals are also named as inorganic salt; and content of those exceeding ten thousandth in the body are macroelements, less than ten thousandth ones are microelements. Microelements are often given special attention because they play a very important role in human physiological activity although they account for a very low amount in the body.

All these microelements in the body are depriving from time to time under influence of metabolism; therefore it’s necessary to supplement timely everyday via various food or this will result in metabolic disorder. Body neither can maintain the normal forms or structures of tissues and organs nor absorb and utilize different nutrition without minerals, that’s why minerals have an important role on human health.

Of particular note is that some microelements are needed at a very low amount in the body, which result in the scope between physiological dose and poisoning dose is extremely narrow. Excessive intake of those microelements will lead to toxic and side effects; so we should be careful of the amount/dose of microelements intake and try to choose those natural food which are rich in microelements in their biological state instead of those synthetic reinforcer. Pine pollen as a natural nutrition source not only carries those macroelements like potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus; but also microelements like Iron, manganese, zinc, copper, selenium and chromium.
Content of different minerals in pine pollen and their physiological actions
Macroelements
Name
Content(mg/100g)
Physiological actions
potassium
128.3
Regulate function of heart and muscles; may cause muscle weakness disease, muscular paralysis, maldevelopment, chronic disease and high blood pressure.
sodium
10.5
Regulate osmotic pressure and acid-base balance; maintain irritability of nerve & muscle; components of pancreatic juice, bile, sweat and tears
calcium
80.6
Constitute bones and teeth, and it’s especially important to infant, baby and pregnant woman.
magnesium
110.3
Constitute bones and teeth; are especially important to infant, baby and pregnant woman; activate enzyme; may cause hemangiectasis, congestion, palpitation and other symptoms.
phosphorus
218.3
Constitute bones and brain; compound to nucleic acid; regulate acid-base balance and metabolism of saccharides, fat and protein.
silicon
201
Promote formation of bones, cartilages, connective tissue and skin.
Microelements
iron
24.2
Essential to make hemachrome of blood and myohemoglobin of muscle.
copper
0.4
Anti-Arteriosclerosis; cholesterol reduction; radiation resistance, anti-cancer, helping impotence.
zinc
3.3
Have close relation with activity of more than 200 kinds enzymes; play a vital role in metabolism of organizing and absorbing the protein, fat, saccharides and nucleic acid; improve activity of sperm; maintain immunity; anti-cancer; anti-aging; zinc deficiency may cause decreased appetite and bad intelligence development.
selenium
0.0031
Powerful anti-cancer effect.
manganese
8.74
Participate in metabolism of human body; improve absorption of protein; manganese deficiency may increase the activity of bone damage cells which may result in osteoporosis and weakening bones.
molybdenum
Less than 0.01
Constitute flavoprotein which could promote growth, protect angiocarpy, maintain myocardial energy metabolism, prevent decayed tooth and cancer.
Fat
Fat as a necessary thermogenic substance for human body is one of the 3 substances of energy sources; every 1 gram fat could provide 9 kilocalorie calories after complete oxidation. Fat owns very important physiological actions; for example it can help absorb liposoluble nutrition in the body, vitamin E as the example; it can be stored under the skin and utilized when body has particular needs of energy; it also can prevent mechanical injury and calories from emitting. Fat is made of glycerinum and fatty acid; therefore property and feature of fat are decided by fatty acid, fatty acid being divided into two types as saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid. The quality of fat we evaluate is from the category, content and ratio of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid. Pine pollen carries different types unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid which account for 72.5% of total fat, there being only one saturated fatty acid as palmitic acid. This proves that pine pollen is an excellent plant fat which is totally different from animal fat because they won’t cause obesity, high blood pressure and high blood fat.
Fatty acids content in pine pollen
Name
oleic acid
linoleic acid
linolenic acid
palmitic acid
Content(mg/g)
3.65
0.19
0.11
1.95
Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid is genetic material which carries all the genetic information of life entity. They fall into two types as Ribonucleic Acid/RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid /DNA, and they exist in chromosome of cells. Nucleic acid control and regulate cell division and growth, direct the synthesis of protein, life activities from generation to death being controlled by nucleic acid.

Before the nucleic acid is discovered, life was regarded as the existence form of protein and protein as the base of life; however this changed after nucleic acid is discovered, nucleic acid being supposed to be the most essential substance of life. At present, opinion that protein and nucleic acid both are base of all vital movement is are universally recognized.

Nucleic acid could be synthesized via liver, marrow and brain, so people believed it’s not necessary to intake nucleic acid in a long period of time. However latter researches showed that self-synthesis ability for people over 20 years of age will be greatly reduced and they can’t synthesize enough nucleic acid for physiological need which will result in aging skin, memory loss, poor vision and degeneration of intestines and stomach function, then it will be necessary for external acquirement from food to make up for this deficiency. Pine pollen as the generative cell of pine tree is rich in nucleic acid, every 100g pine pollen containing 47-58 mg; therefore, pine pollen has been regarded as the best natural source nucleic acid.

Choline
Choline as a type of quasi-vitamins substance was separated from pig's bile for the first time in 1849; and it was officially named as choline in 1862 and now it has been used as a common food additive. United States Code lists choline as a generally recognized as safe product; and EU Regulations issued in 1991 allow choline to be added in infant food. It has a very important physiological function in human body, for example it could be transferred to acetyl choline ( ACH ) after acetylation which is as a vital neurotransmitter in living organism. Acetyl choline ( ACH ) could promote the synthesis of phospholipid which is a strong anti-fatty liver agent; therefore intake of pine pollen could prevent fatty liver. And choline content is tested around 200-280mg in every 100g pine pollen.

Flavonoids
Flavonoids are a type of derived yellow pigment on basis of flavone as their nuclear parent. They are widely existed in the plant and those fruits and vegetables with different colors contain with high content bioflavonoid. Pine pollen carries several kinds of flavonoids compounds and their functions are to protect the nucleic acid which is as the genetic substance from radiation destruction via its own radioresistance character in order to guarantee the genetic stability of pine tree.

Flavonoids in pine pollen owns similar physiological functions with rutin like they can preserve toughness of blood capillary, are effective to prevent the capillary permeability barrier, retinal hemorrhage and cerebral hemorrhage, as well as the function to lower the blood pressure. Researches showed that flavonoids as a natural compound has a good effect to regulate blood sugar, prevent atherosclerosis, lower cholesterol, resist radiation and cancer.

Existing researches results showed that pine pollen of almost all the pine trees family contains rich flavonoids except some minority. The content of flavonoids in Pine pollen from different kinds pine tree has a big difference, for example pine pollen from Pinus massoniana contains 29.3mg every 100g, pine pollen from pinus thunbergii contains 200mg every 100g, pine pollen from Yunnan Province China contains around 450mg every 100g. However the content of each composition is affected by many factors like the collection time which means even the pine pollen from same type pine tree, the flavonoids content may show some difference due to different collection time.

Pine Pollen Benefits
Balance between Androgenand Estrogen in Human Body
Pine pollen powder offer one of nature's most potent sources of androgenic substances as testosterone, as well as with certain amounts of other plant steriods including androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androsterone. In the book "Pine Pollen, Ancient Medicine for a New Millennium", Stephen Buhner writes that it is a "potent overall tonic to the body and its functioning, powerful nutritive and exceptionally effective androgen which raises testosterone levels in the blood and balances the androgen/estrogen ratio."

Estrogen and androgen are the main type of sex hormones and can be biosynthesized in the human body for maintaining a balanced endrocrine system thus work on human body. Androgens not only include testosterone and androstenedione, but also include the group of estrogens like estrone, estriol and estradiol as well as the third class of sex hormones called progestogens, like progesterone. Men produce larger amount androgens while women produce a larger amount estrogen. When we have a unbalanced hormone, we may suffer from a lot of symptoms like weight gain, insomnia, fatigue, low sex drive, depression and even more serious health problems. And pine pollen powder could supplement the deficiency and boost the recovery of certain hormone especially for those in middle aged adults whose testosterone, DHEA and androstenedione production undergoing a decrease with the aging, thus ease the male andropause and female menopause. Pine pollen powder could be taken with other testosterone boosting superfoods, including horny goat weed extract, tongkat ali extract, sting nettle root extract, maca root extract, tribulus terrestris extract, ashwagandha extract, ginseng root extract, cistanche extract and fenugreek seed extract as a testosterone supplements for a better result.

Sterols(Plant Hormone) in Pine Pollen
Pine Pollen is an androgen which means that it has the ability to raise testosterone levels effectively, as a naturally derived source of testosterone. Pine Pollen raises the testosterone levels in the blood and balances the ratio of androgens to estrogen. What bring the pine pollen with such effect on the hormonal levels are the sterols it carries. The sterols are basically plant steroids to help pine tress grow, which also could benefit humans in testosterone enhancement. And based on researches conducted, the content of total sterols in pine pollen is from 0.98% to 7.67%(1st, Aug. 2010, Suzhe Dong, preliminary study on Pine Pollen Quality) after testing several types and different sources pine pollen. And also their study found that cell cracked pine pollen powder has a higher sterols content than uncracked pine pollen.

Pine Pollen is health food without any animal hormone, insect hormone, dope and toxic side-effects. Plant hormones are natural organic compounds that can regulate plant growth and belong to the steroid or simple organic acid family. Despite the use of "hormone", they differ greatly from animal hormone in terms of the origin, biological synthesis, transmission process and effects in that it is just a growth factor for plants without any negative effect on the body.

Pine Pollen is health food without any animal hormone, insect hormone, dope and toxic side-effects. Plant hormones are natural organic compounds that can regulate plant growth and belong to the steroid or simple organic acid family. Despite the use of "hormone", they differ greatly from animal hormone in terms of the origin, biological synthesis, transmission process and effects in that it is just a growth factor for plants without any negative effect on the body. Pine Pollen contains phyto (plant type) of the androgen (male hormone) hormones, including androstenedione, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone. These hormones are almost bio-identical to human androgen hormones and are able to promote the body's own production of androgen hormones. This give the pine pollen a very important healing property since androgens are very reparative to the body. These phyto-androgens provide the boday healing with continuously increased testosterone.

Plant hormones or Phytohormones are organic compounds that are synthesized in a particular part of a plant and then conveyed to other parts. Even in low concentration, phytohormones are able to regulate the growth and development of plants, as well as affect their ability to differentiate cells and tissues. Phytohormones affect the plants’ ability to respond to environmental stimuli. They are also responsible for the plants’ longevity and death, time of flowering, as well as in the development and ripening of fruit. Plant hormones are abundant in embryonic plant tissues and not in mature plant cells. Like plants, the human body also produces hormones and enzymes. In people and vertebrate animals, hormones act as chemical messengers that are utilized by the endocrine, nervous, and immune systems to convey unseen electrical impulses and chemical signals that would facilitate communication within a cell or between cell and/or among system organs. Hormones and enzymes also regulate body functions, control human behavior and integrate systemic functions – nervous, immune and endocrine systems, etc.

Plants cannot benefit from human hormones; however, plant hormones can do wondrous health effects to human health. Laboratory findings show that plant hormones can stimulate human immune cells that boost the body’s natural defense against stressors and diseases. There are three types of plant hormones that have shown promising benefits to us humans - Plant Growth Hormone (PGH), Plant Stress Hormone (PSH) and Plant Immune Hormone (PIH).

In Stephen Harrod Buhner’ book, The Natural Testosterone Plan: For Sexual Health and Energy, he writes:
”......Chemistry:Pine pollen contains large quantities of sterols,  steroid-like substances,that are exceptionally potent. Many of these are brassino-steroids. One such, brassinoloide, is a powerful growth stimulant toplants. As little as one nanogram applied to a bean sprout can cause tremendous growth in response. Other brassinosteroids, such as castasterone and typhasterol, are also common in pine pollen. The pollen also contains a variety of endogenous gibberellins and a number of glutathione transferases. Endogenous gibberellins are plant hormones that affect cell enlargement and division. Glutathione transferases posess wide actions in living systems. They detoxify xenobiotics such as chemical carcinogens and environmental pollutants and inactivate unsaturated aldehydes, quinones, and hydroperoxides that occur as metabolites of oxidative stress.More importantly, for this book, they are intimately involved in the biosynthesis of testosterone and progesterone. Plants that grow ground pine forests have come to depend on this potent nutrient source for their growth.In fact, brassinosteroids regulate gene expression in many plants. The pollen that falls to the ground or into water is generally taken up very quickly as a food and nutrient growth stimulant by other plants and living organisms in the area, including insects and animals. The brassinosteroids in pollen are actually very similar in structure to many animal steroid hormones and do exhibit steroidal activity. In addition, pine pollen contains significant amounts of human male hormones such as testosterone and androstenedione and relatively large quantities of amino acids, vitamins,minerals, and other nutrients......”

“......Analysis of pollen from P.sylvestris,P.nigra, P. bungeana, and P. tabulaeformis has shown the presence of androgenic constituents, including testosterone. Pinus nigra, or black pine, pollen contains the following androgens: androstenedione(0.7-0.8 mcg per 10g,0.000009% by weight), testosterone(0.7mcg per 10g,approximately 0.000009% by weight), dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA;about 0.1 mcg per 10g, 0.0000015 by weight), and androsterone(approx. 0.2 mcg per 10g, 0.0000022% by weight). The testosterone in Pinus bunngeana pollen runs 11 nanograms per 0.1 grams dry weight, and that in P. tabulaeformis runs 27 nanograms per 0.1 grams dry weight.

Although these amounts might seem small, recall that it takes as little as four nanograms(one-thousandth of a microgram) to chance our sex to men while we are developing in the womb.That can be represented as 0.004 micrograms. Androgens are very potent chemicals. In comparison with that amount, P. nigra pollen contains 0.7 micrograms per 10 grams of pollen. The traditional oral dose of pine pollen in China is 4.5 to 9 grams per day......”

Research on the Therapeutic Effect of Pine Pollen on Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) in Rats (2005,Cong Tao)
In studying the therapeutic effect of pine pollen on rats benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) and its mechanism. 24 SD rat were divided into 3 groups. 3 groups were fed with normal diet. The group 2 and group 3 were fed with 3 starch tablets(as placebo) and 3 pine pollen tablets per day respectively, and the group 2 and group 3 were be pari-fed with group 1. After two weeks, group 2 and group 3 were injected with testosterone propionate(4mg/kg) which was mixed with olive oil. At the same time, group 1 was injected with olive oil(1ml/kg) alone. 2 weeks later, the pathologic slices of prostate were observed, and the sex hormones contents, trace elements zinc, copper and antioxidantive enzymes of serum, prostate and liver were determined. The results showed that the prostate hyperplasia symptoms of pine pollen group are much better than those of placebo group. Testosterone level of group 3 is lower than that of group 2 and no distinct difference from control group. The estradiol level in serum of rats in group 3 is the lowest. Therefore the experiment comes the conclusion that intake of pine pollen could improve the symptoms of BPH and the preventive mechanism can regulate sex hormones balance.

At present, the index to measure the degree of BPH(Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is via prostate index and pathological section result. The above results shows that prostate weight, prostate index and prostate cell proliferation of pine pollen group rats are distinctly lower than placebo group rats which can clearly prove pine pollen has preventive and therapeutic effect on BPH(Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia).

Generally recognized 3 biochemical mechanism that trigger BPH are from 3 ways as male sex hormone, estrogen hormone and growth factor. Above experiment result shows that the serum testosterone content of BPH rats increase greatly which is because of the testosterone propionate injection. Testosterone level of pine pollen group rats is obviously lower than placebo group rats and the serum estrogen level is also lower than rest 2 groups. These differences show that pine pollen not only can effectively control rats serumtestosterone level but also can adjust the serum estrogen level. Above 2 ways can retract the hyperplastic prostate and own a better treating effect without side effects. And application of this plant male andro gamete(pine pollen) in treatment of sex organ diseases is also in conformity with the therapeutic principle of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

In addition, In vitro proliferation experiment is conducted on different sources of cells with pine pollen; the result shows that cells from prostate can be inhibited by pine pollen while the non-prostate sources cells are not. This means pine pollen has a selective inhibitory effect on prostatic cell proliferation, and has a better inhibitory effect on hormone insensitive cells than hormone-dependent cells.

Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that level of blood urea nitrogen and blood sugar of prostatic hyperplasia rats are lower than control group, creatinine level only showing a decreasing trend; which means the liver function of prostatic hyperplasia rats was affected at a certain degree thus adjusting function decreased. Weight, serum cholesterol, and triglyceride of pine pollen group rats have a distinct decrease. In conclusion, pine pollen not only can adjust the level of male and female hermone, play a therapeutic effect on BPH(Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) but also can selectively inhibit the cells via a non-hormonal way; therefore it has a positive clinical meaning for medium-elderly men to take pine pollen in a long-term at a certain amount.

Neutralize the Side Effects of Xenoestrogens
In modern society, all kinds of pollutant from petroleum or chemical substances like herbicides, pesticides, plastics, BPA, dioxin and PCB's bring the change to our living environment with a lot of estrogens. And all these exogenous estrogens have a negative effect on our health especially could blind our estrogen receptors, simulate estrogen and prevent normal hormone from functionning. This could trigger an redundant estrogens in both men and women and then a decrease in androgen which bring the possibilities of breast and prostate cancers, affect the growth and infertility. Pine pollen powder could help to neutralize the extra estrogen thus balance the ratio of estrogen and androgen in the human body.

Help Bodybuilding, Libido, Willpowder and Mood
Compared with synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, pine pollen powder as a natural source testosterone is rich in anabolic phytosteroids, which is helpful for athletes and body builders to increase the muscle mass and improve the endurance and overal performance without side effects. And testosterone also could help to promote the libido for both male and female. Men requires more androgen hormones for a healthy sex performance, pine pollen powder happens to be a natural source supplement to increase the sperm count and treat erectile dysfunction. In another aspect, balanced testosterone level could lead to positive feelings of well being, uplifted mood, stimulated sense of willpowder, and promoted enthusiasm for life. This is because pine pollen powder contains a type of substance named as phenylalanine which is the pecursor of levodopa, and as a result it could help to stimulate dopamine level in human brain.

Boost the immunity
Pine pollen powder contains a broad spectrum of nutrition such as protein, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements and other effective compositions. All these nutrition endows pine pollen powder with an adaptogenic benefits, which means it could help to increase the resistance of human body to daily stress and serve as a restorative agent to promote immunity. As an adaptogen, pine pollen powder could provide a protective function for human beings from radiation and other chemical contamination in our surrounding environment. Pine pollen powder also contains such antioxidants like glutathione and SOD. Glutathione is capable of preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine. Glutathione is a necessary agent for the metabolism of certain vitamins and minerals such as iron, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and is involved in amino acid transport. It also inhibits cancerous growths, neutralizes free radicals and is vital for DNA synthesis and production. In addition, glutathione also works as a liver-detoxifying agent because the enzyme and glutathione S-transferase it contains.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage. Hydrogen peroxide is also damaging, but less so,[citation needed] and is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase. Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus plantarum and related lactobacilli, which use a different mechanism to prevent damage from reactive (O2−).

Skin Care
Arginine and sulfur-based MSM in pine pollen powder is very helpful to treat different skin conditions. Pine pollen contains the amino acid arginine as well as sulfur-based MSM, both of which are beneficial in the treatment of various skin conditions. Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur including glutathione and thioredoxin and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all organisms. It can help to build keratin and collagen, two compounds essential for healthy nails, hair and skin tissue. The pine pollen powder can be used externally to help the treatment of eczema, rashes or even acne. Androgen steriods in pine pollen powder also help to promote tissue regeneration and prevent the degradation of collagen and elastin. Collagen and elastin are important ingredient maintain healthy skin.  Pine pollen powder has been used as a cosmetic raw materials to smooth the skin and keep a youthful looking of skin in China andSouth Korea with a long history.

Cell-Wall Cracked Pine Pollen Powder
Pine pollen powder is a nutritive superfood with bioabsorbable constituents that are beneficial to health and immune system. However pine pollen grain is surrounded by hard sporoderm/cell/shell which likes an armour to protect the nutrition inside the cell wall. The cell wall of pine pollen can stay the same when soaked in caustic soda or in boiling water, as well as strong radioresistance character. A study conducted by a Japanese scholar on pine pollen by increasing the radiological dose on Pine Pollen and found that the cytoplasm dead volume is 77.4-129 C/KG while the human radiation lethal dose is only 0.15 C/KG; which can show that pine pollen cell wall has extraordinary strong stability and radioresistance character. Digestive juice of human or any monogastric animal can not break the Pine Pollen cell wall. Therefore, for better consumption of nutrition inside the cell wall, physical breaking of pine pollen cell wall is necessary.

Pollen grains are wrapped in the solid shell, which protects the nutrients and hereditary substance in it as an “armor”. The pollen wall has a great capacity of not only with standing being soaked in caustic soda and boiled in water but also resisting radioactivity. Experiments made by Japanese scholars by increasing the radioactive dose shows that the lethal dose of radiation on human beings is 0.15 coulomb/kilogram whereas a dose of 77.4-129 coulomb/kilogram on pollen cells demonstrates the marvelous solidity and anti-radioactivity properties of the pollen shell.

It is originated in Japan that the digestive juice of human beings and monogastric animal can not break down the sporoderm/cell/shell of the pollen, thus the sporoderm/cell/shell has to be removed before all the nutrients in pollen can be absorbed. However, European and American countries that have popularized pollen products hold that the pollen with a sporoderm/cell/shell or without a sporoderm/cell/shell can both be absorbed by the body. For many years, no agreement has been reached on this issue whether it is necessary or not to break the pollen sporoderm/cell/shell. This argument has captured the great attention of nutritionists. Many studies have been carried out on the cell-cracking of pollen by experts at home and abroad as a scientific research subject.

The study on the microforms and nutrients has been made by the Trace Element Research Laboratory of the General Hospital of the PLA with an analytic comparison on the nutrients of natural pollen and cell cracked pollen and a discussion has been provided on the effect of the cell cracking on the pollen structure and nutrients after an observation on the changes of the microforms before and after the sporoderm/cell/shell is cracked with the scanning electron microscope.

Pine pollen is a kind of faint yellow powder with a light texture easy to flow and a soft feel of lubricity. The fluid property of pine pollen can be perceived when a bottle with it is being shaken but the fluid properties are lost when its sporoderm/cell/shell is cracked with the high speed airflow pulverization method causing the change on its physical properties, unable to flow due to the tremendous adhesiveness of the cell cracked pine pollen.

The vesicae shed and separate themselves from the pollen grains under the mechanical force while they are crashing with one another under the force of the high speed airflow during the cell cracked process. The main bodies of the cell cracked pollen grains are relatively enriched due to the fact that the vesicae are easy to be carried by the high speed airflow for its special physical structure and get lost with the force of the airflow.

Forms of Pine Pollen Products and their Difference
There are pine pollen powder, pine pollen extract, pine pollen tablet, pine pollen capsule and pine pollen tincture available in the market. Pine pollen powder in the market refers to cell wall cracked one, because this could help absorption. Pine pollen tablet is generally made of cell cracked pine pollen powder; and the most regular specification is 500mg per tablet. Pine pollen capsule is mostly 300mg per count due to the density of pine pollen powder is small. Pine pollen tincture is an alcohol extracted herbal preparation. Some people may be confused whether there is any difference between the powder form (including pine pollen tablet and capsule) and pine pollen tincture. The pine pollen powder generally carries complete nutrition like vitamins, minerals and antioxidants however less androgenic substances. Pine pollen tincture is with higher androgens such as testosterone and is easier to be absorbed. The reason is that pine pollen powder is taken from digestive tract while pine pollen tincture is more absorbed through blood stream with the help of alcohol.

Recommended Dosage
Pine pollen powder/tablet/capsule
General health preservation: 5g each time, twice a day;
Sub-healthy people: 10g each time, twice a day;
High blood sugar, blood fat and blood pressure and chronic hepatitis: 15g each time, twice a day;
liver cirrhosis, cancer and chemoradiotherapy treatment: 20g each time, twice a day.
Pine pollen tincture
Most recommended dosage for a 2:1 pine pollen tincture is 1/2 to 1 dropper twice daily and you could start with a small amount (like a half or full dropper) and increase over time to find what works for you.  


Pine Pollen Powder: A Superfood with Time-honored History

Pine Pollen Powder Background As a nutritive adaptogenic tonic,   pine pollen powder   is well known as a natural source "superfo...